Animal Science Department


Date of this Version

December 1997


Published in Braz. J. Genet. vol. 20 no. 4 Ribeirão Preto Dec. 1997.


Teaching, research, and herd breeding applications may require calculation of breed additive contributions for direct and maternal genetic effects and fractions of heterozygosity associated with breed specific direct and maternal heterosis effects. These coefficients can be obtained from the first NB rows of a pseudo numerator relationship matrix where the first NB rows represent fractional contributions by breed to each animal or group representing a specific breed cross. The table begins with an NB x NB identity matrix representing pure breeds. Initial animals or representative crosses must be purebreds or two-breed crosses. Parents of initial purebreds are represented by the corresponding column and initial two-breed cross progeny by the two corresponding columns of the identity matrix. After that, usual rules are used to calculate the NB column entries corresponding to breeds for each animal. The NB entries are fractions of genes expected to be contributed by each of the pure breeds and correspond to the breed additive direct fractions. Entries in the column corresponding to the dam represent breed additive maternal fractions. Breed specific direct heterozygosity coefficients are entries of an NB x NB matrix formed by the outer product of the two NB by 1 columns associated with sire and dam of the animal. One minus sum of the diagonals represents total direct heterozygosity. Similarly, the NB x NB matrix formed by the outer product of columns associated with sire of dam and dam of dam contains breed specific maternal heterozygosity coefficients. These steps can be programmed to create covariates to merge with data. If X represents these coefficients for all unique breed crosses, then the reduced row echelon form function of MATLAB or SAS can be used on X to determine estimable functions of additive breed direct and maternal effects and breed specific direct and maternal heterosis effects.