Date of this Version
Records from two herds in India and two in Columbia representing respectively two breeds of Bos indicus (Hariana and Deshi) and two Bos taurus breeds—Blanco Orejinegro (BON) and Costeño Con Cuernos (CCC) were evaluated for breeding efficiency and viability. Average age at first calving was 52.1, 46.3, 39.5 and 40.7 months for Hariana, Deshi, CCC and BON. Season of birth did not influence age at calving. Ranking for calving interval was similar, average 479, 418, 396 and 382 days with season effects significant (P<.05) for only Deshi. BON and CCC had fewer days open but much shorter lactation periods, average 73 and 157, thus days carried calf in lactation were similar for all breeds. Percent of time dry per calving interval was high for all breeds, 44.2, 36.7, 64.1 and 81.0 for Hariana, Deshi, BON and CCC. Average annual mortality of females by 12 months of age was 23.6% for Hariana, 17.0% Deshi and 27.0% BON. In the same herds 46.4%, 51.1% and 49.0% of females born alive lived to first calving and annual losses among cows were 18.0%, 17.0%, and 21.0%; therefore, affording little opportunity for selection among females. Temperament, as determined by response to the milking process with and without the calf present, showed all the breeds were similar in this respect. Environmental effects were most important for all traits but genetic differences were indicated for age at first calving and milk yield. On a theoretical basis little gain could be expected in net dairy merit from crosses between the Columbian and Indian breeds.