Animal Science Department


Date of this Version

February 1990


Published in J. Anim. Sci. 1990. 68:4014-4025.


Rules for forming the mixed-model equations for the reduced animal model with all relationships and including maternal effects have been set out by Quaas and Pollak. They also have shown how to simplify the mixed-model equations when genetic group effects are included in the model with what has become known as the Q-P transformation. Westell has given rules for calculating the coefficients for the Q-P transformed equations that are associated with the inverse of the numerator relationship matrix and genetic group effects. Those rules can be extended to include maternal effects and genetic groups for maternal as well as direct effects. As with the rules of Quaas and Pollak for the equations for the reduced animal model, a similar set of rules can be obtained for the genetic groups model after the Q-P transformation. The rules are derived easily by examining the algebraic results of absorbing the direct and maternal breeding value equations for non-parents into the parent breeding value, group and fixed effects equations. These rules involve Westell's rules and the inverse elements of the genetic (co)variance matrix for direct and maternal additive genetic effects. The rules make calculation of breeding values for parents for models including direct and maternal genetic group effects nearly as easy as for models without genetic group effects. Back solution for direct and maternal breeding values of non-parents similarly is as simple as when genetic group effects are not in the model.