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Allantoin excretion in the urine was evaluated as a marker for bacterial protein production in lactating and dry cows grazing Sandhills range and meadows. Allantoin excretion declined with season as diet digestibility declined. Bacterial protein predicted from allantoin was significantly related (R2 = .62) to bacterial protein predicted by NRC. Urinary allantoin has potential as a tool to predict bacterial protein production in grazing cattle.