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Developing a better understanding of associations among ploidy level, geographic distribution, and genetic diversity of Cynodon accessions could be beneficial to bermudagrass breeding programs, and would enhance our understanding of the evolutionary biology of this warm season grass species. This study was initiated to: (1) determine ploidy analysis of Cynodon accessions collected from Turkey, (2) investigate associations between ploidy level and diversity, (3) determine whether geographic and ploidy distribution are related to nuclear genome variation, and (4) correlate among four nuclear molecular marker systems for Cynodon accessions’ genetic analyses. One hundred and eighty-two Cynodon accessions collected in Turkey from an area south of the Taurus Mountains along the Mediterranean cost and ten known genotypes were genotyped using sequence related amplified polymorphism (SRAP), peroxidase gene polymorphism (POGP), inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The diploids, triploids, tetraploids, pentaploids, and hexaploids revealed by flow cytometry had a linear present band frequency of 0.36, 0.47, 0.49, 0.52, and 0.54, respectively. Regression analysis explained that quadratic relationship between ploidy level and band frequency was the most explanatory (r = 0.62, P < 0.001). The AMOVA results indicated that 91 and 94% of the total variation resided within ploidy level and provinces, respectively. The UPGMA analysis suggested that commercial bermudagrass cultivars only one-third of the available genetic variation. SRAP, POGP, ISSR, and RAPD markers differed in detecting relationships among the bermudagrass genotypes and rare alleles, suggesting more efficiency of combinatory analysis of molecular marker systems. Elucidating Cynodon accessions’ genetic structure can aid to enhance breeding programs and broaden genetic base of commercial cultivars.