Date of this Version
Rochford, M.R., J.M. Lemm, K.L. Krysko, L.A. Somma, R.W. Hansen, and F.J. Mazzotti. 2015. Spreading Holiday Spirit and Northwestern Salamanders, Ambystoma gracile (Baird 1859) (Caudata: Ambystomatidae), Across the USA. IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians 22(3):126-127.
Introduced species of amphibians and reptiles are of growing conservation concern (Bury and Luckenbach 1976; Krysko et al. 2011; Meshaka 2011). Unintentional introductions result largely from individuals escaping from enclosures or hitch-hiking in cargo or on vehicles, whereas intentional introductions occur primarily because a species is perceived to be of value to humans or from deliberately releasing sick or unwanted animals, including pets (Kraus 2009; Krysko et al. 2011). In Florida, most known introductions are directly related to the pet trade, but about 12% are related to the cargo pathway (Krysko et al. 2011). In this paper, we report the introduction of the Northwestern Salamander, Ambystoma gracile (Baird 1859), in Florida from Broward County, and in California from Fresno and San Diego counties, via the cargo pathway.