Date of this Version
Published in Human Development 61 (2018), pp 60–64.
In 2011, Hugo Mercier and Dan Sperber published an influential article [Mercier & Sperber, 2011] arguing that human reasoning evolved for the purpose of argumentation and serves that purpose well. Additional publications followed and now, in The Enigma of Reason, Mercier and Sperber  flesh out their theory. Individual reasoning is often fallacious, in their view, because it applies reasoning beyond the scope of its evolutionary purpose. Logic, rather than a basis for reasoning, is a formalized system developed by logicians that has little connection to actual human reasoning.
This is a rich and readable book that presents many intriguing studies from the literature of human reasoning and addresses diverse philosophical and theoretical conceptualizations of human rationality. In the end, however, I believe it has two serious, and closely related, flaws: it ignores development and, as a result, misunderstands the nature of logic and its role in reasoning.