Educational Psychology, Department of


Date of this Version

November 1996


Published in Remedial and Special Education, 17:6 (November 1996), pp. 341–354. Published by the Hammill Institute on Disabilities and SAGE, in association with the American Rehabilitation Counseling Association. Used by permission.


This review summarizes the findings of consultation and teaming research from 1985 to 1995. It analyzes and critiques various methodological features of the research and draws conclusions regarding the current state of consultation and teaming outcome studies. Specific questions addressed in this review include (a) how much empirically based outcome research has been conducted since 1985, (b) what the common methodological features incorporated into the current consultation research are, and (c) what conclusions regarding the current status of outcome research in consultation can be drawn. Behavioral consultation studies were most prevalent (compared to mental health consultation, organizational development consultation, teaming, and other models). Nearly three-fourths of all studies reported some positive outcomes. Methodological advances have been made in some areas, such as the use of experimental designs, multiple outcome measures, assessment of acceptability, and attention to social validity. However, the majority of these advances are incorporated primarily into the behavioral consultation research, not into studies investigating other consultation approaches. Practice implications and a research agenda are offered based on the results of this review.