Date of this Version
Diffuse ultrasonic backscatter measurements have been especially useful for extracting microstructural information and for detecting flaws in materials. Accurate interpretation of experimental data requires robust scattering models. Quantitative ultrasonic scattering models include components of transducer beam patterns as well as microstructural scattering information. Here, the Wigner distribution is used in conjunction with the stochastic wave equation to model this scattering problem. The Wigner distribution represents a distribution in space and time of spectral energy density as a function of wave vector and frequency. The scattered response is derived within the context of the Wigner distribution of the beam pattern of a Gaussian transducer. The source and receiver distributions are included in the analysis in a rigorous fashion. The resulting scattered response is then simplified in the single-scattering limit typical of many diffuse backscatter experiments. Such experiments, usually done using a modified pulse-echo technique, utilize the variance of the signals in space as the primary measure of microstructure. The derivation presented forms a rigorous foundation for the multiple scattering process associated with ultrasonic experiments in heterogeneous media. These results are anticipated to be relevant to ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation of polycrystalline and other heterogeneous solids.