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Establishing perennial grasses on former cropland presents a challenge. Weed control can be accomplished with herbicides, tillage, burning, mowing, and crop competition. The key to weed control is timeliness. Weeds should be controlled on CRP acres to reduce the risk of seeding failure and eliminate possible reseeding costs. Soil moisture must be available for seed germination, seedling emergence, and establishment to be successful in getting stands of grasses and/or legumes. Weeds can quickly and thoroughly consume soil water throughout the upper soil profile and must be controlled to allow grass and legume seedlings to germinate and emerge. In addition, rapid-growing, uncontrolled weeds can form a canopy which shades slower growing desirable plants and prevents the formation of desirable protective ground cover.