Date of this Version
Frontiers in Immunology | www.frontiersin.org March 2019 | Volume 10 | Article 482
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a crucial role in innate immunity and provide a first line of host defense against invading pathogens. Of the identified human TLRs, TLR10 remains an orphan receptor whose ligands and functions are poorly understood. In the present study, we sought to evaluate the level of TLR10 expression in breastmilk (BM) and explore its potential function in the context of HIV-1 infection. We evaluated HIV-1-infected (Nigerian: n = 40) and uninfected (Nigerian: n = 27; Canadian: n = 15) BM samples for TLR expression (i.e., TLR10, TLR2, and TLR1) and report here that HIV-1-infected BM from Nigerian women showed significantly higher levels of TLR10, TLR1, and TLR2 expression. Moreover, the level of TLR10 expression in HIV-1-infected BM was upregulated by over 100-fold compared to that from uninfected control women. In vitro studies using TZMbl cells demonstrated that TLR10 overexpression contributes to higher HIV-1 infection and proviral DNA integration. Conversely, TLR10 inhibition significantly decreased HIV-1 infection. Notably, HIV-1 gp41 was recognized as a TLR10 ligand, leading to the induction of IL-8 and NF-kBa activation. The identification of a TLR10 ligand and its involvement in HIV-1 infection enhances our current understanding of HIV-1 replication and may assist in the development of improved future therapeutic strategies.