Date of this Version
Amnuaycheewa, P.; Niemann, L.; Goodman, R.E.; Baumert, J.L.; Taylor, S.L. Challenges in Gluten Analysis: A Comparison of Four Commercial Sandwich ELISA Kits. Foods 2022, 11, 706. https:// doi.org/10.3390/foods11050706
Gluten is composed of prolamin and glutelin proteins from several related grains. Because these proteins are not present in identical ratios in the various grains and because they have some differences in sequence, the ability to accurately quantify the overall amount of gluten in various food matrices to support gluten-free labeling is difficult. Four sandwich ELISAs (the R-Biopharm AG R5 RIDASCREEN®, the Neogen Veratox® R5, the Romer Labs AgraQuant® G12, and the Morinaga Wheat kits) were evaluated for their performance to quantify gluten concentrations in various foods and ingredients. The Morinaga and AgraQuant® G12 tests yielded results comparable to the two R5 kits for most, but not for certain, foods. The results obtained with the Morinaga kit were lower when compared to the other kits for analyzing powders of buckwheat and several grass-based products. All four kits were capable of detecting multiple gluten-containing grain sources including wheat, rye, barley, semolina, triticale, spelt, emmer, einkorn, Kamut™, and club wheat. Users of the ELISA kits should verify the performance in their hands, with matrices that are typical for their specific uses. The variation in results for some food matrices between test methods could result in trade disputes or regulatory disagreements.