Date of this Version
Liu, S.; Xu, L.;Wu, Y.; Simsek, S.; Rose, D.J. End-Use Quality of Historical and Modern Winter Wheats Adapted to the Great Plains of the United States. Foods 2022, 11, 2975. https://doi.org/ 10.3390/foods11192975
Improving milling and baking properties is important during wheat breeding. To determine changes in milling and baking quality of hard winter wheat, 23 adapted cultivars released in the Great Plains between 1870 and 2013 were grown in triplicate in a single location (Mead, NE, USA) over two crop years (2018 and 2019). Grain yield and kernel hardness index increased by release year (p < 0.05). The observed increase in hardness index was accompanied by a decrease in percent soft kernels (p < 0.05). Diameter and weight decreased with release year in 2019 (p < 0.05), and their standard deviation increased with the release year (p < 0.05). Flour protein content decreased with release year (p < 0.05) and dough mixing quality increased (p < 0.05). No significant relationship was found for baking property variables, but bran water retention capacity (BWRC), which is correlated with whole wheat bread quality, increased with release year (p < 0.05). In conclusion, wheat kernels have become harder but more variable in shape over a century of breeding. Mixing quality showed significant improvements, and loaf volume and firmness remained constant, even in the presence of a decrease in protein concentration. Bran quality decreased across release year, which may have implications for whole grain baking quality and milling productivity.