Food Science and Technology Department


Date of this Version



Journal of Functional Foods 100 (2023) 105367.


Open access.


In addition to causing embarrassment, intestinal gas can be associated with more serious symptoms. This review provides an overview of gas production by the human gut microbiome and outlines foods associated with intestinal gas. Bacteroides, Ruminococcus, Roseburia, Clostridium, Eubacterium, Desulfovibrio, and Methanobrevibacter are among the most abundant microbes responsible for intestinal gas. More than 99% of intestinal gas is composed of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and methane, while less than 1% is composed of other odiferous compounds. Food groups associated with intestinal gas include pulses, vegetables, fruits, grains, and, for some individuals, dairy. These foods are rich in non–digestible carbohydrates such as raffinose family oligosaccharides, fructans, polyols, and, for sensitive individuals, lactose. These carbohydrates are fermented by colonic bacteria and produce gases directly or by cross–feeding. Additional research on gas production by the gut microbiota and foods associated with gas may help mitigate the symptoms linked to intestinal gas.

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