Date of this Version
Gomes-Neto JC, Pavlovikj N, Korth N, Naberhaus SA, Arruda B, Benson AK and Kreuder AJ (2023) Salmonella enterica induces biogeography-specific changes in the gut microbiome of pigs. Front. Vet. Sci. 10:1186554. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2023.1186554
Swine are a major reservoir of an array of zoonotic Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica lineage I serovars including Derby, Typhimurium, and 4,,12:i:- (a.k.a. Monophasic Typhimurium). In this study, we assessed the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome composition of pigs in different intestinal compartments and the feces following infection with specific zoonotic serovars of S. enterica (S. Derby, S. Monophasic, and S. Typhimurium). 16S rRNA based microbiome analysis was performed to assess for GI microbiome changes in terms of diversity (alpha and beta), community structure and volatility, and specific taxa alterations across GI biogeography (small and large intestine, feces) and days post-infection (DPI) 2, 4, and 28; these results were compared to disease phenotypes measured as histopathological changes. As previously reported, only S. Monophasic and S. Typhimurium induced morphological alterations that marked an inflammatory milieu restricted to the large intestine in this experimental model. S. Typhimurium alone induced significant changes at the alpha- (Simpson’s and Shannon’s indexes) and beta-diversity levels, specifically at the peak of inflammation in the large intestine and feces. Increased community dispersion and volatility in colonic apex and fecal microbiomes were also noted for S. Typhimurium. All three Salmonella serovars altered community structure as measured by co-occurrence networks; this was most prominent at DPI 2 and 4 in colonic apex samples. At the genus taxonomic level, a diverse array of putative short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) producing bacteria were altered and often decreased during the peak of inflammation at DPI 2 and 4 within colonic apex and fecal samples. Among all putative SCFA producing bacteria, Prevotella showed a broad pattern of negative correlation with disease scores at the peak of inflammation. In addition, Prevotella 9 was found to be significantly reduced in all Salmonella infected groups compared to the control at DPI 4 in the colonic apex. In conclusion, this work further elucidates that distinct swine-related zoonotic serovars of S. enterica can induce both shared (high resilience) and unique (altered resistance) alterations in gut microbiome biogeography, which helps inform future investigations of dietary modifications aimed at increasing colonization resistance against Salmonella through GI microbiome alterations.