U.S. Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service


Date of this Version



Pest Manag Sci 2020

DOI 10.1002/ps.5730


This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.


BACKGROUND: Anticoagulant rodenticides are used worldwide to control pest rodent species. However, the risks posed to nontarget reptiles have not been well characterized. In this study, 46 giant ameivas (Ameiva ameiva), 39 boa constrictors (Boa constrictor), 33 wood turtles (Rhinoclemmys pulcherrima), and 47 green iguanas (Iguana iguana) were orally dosed with one of two levels of either diphacinone or brodifacoum anticoagulant in propylene glycol solutions. Dosages were derived using daily food intake (DFI) equations, converting DFI to an equivalent anticoagulant bait amount and gavaging the solution volume needed to deliver the quantity of anticoagulant in that amount of bait. Animals were dosed on days 0 and 7 and monitored for a further 7 days for signs of anticoagulant intoxication and differences in behaviors and postures. At necropsy on day 14, animals were examined for thoracic and abdominal bleeding, and both tissue and organ samples were taken for histology. Liver and wholebody anticoagulant residues were assessed. RESULTS: No turtles or boas died due to anticoagulant exposure. However, anticoagulant intoxication was suspected in one iguana dosed with brodifacoum. A few treated ameivas died but exhibited no hemorrhaging. Liver residue levels were higher than whole-body remainder residue levels for all species. Unlike the other species, turtles had higher diphacinone residue levels than brodifacoum. CONCLUSION: Turtles and boas exhibited a relative insensitivity to diphacinone and brodifacoum, while the lizards appeared to be somewhat more sensitive to these compounds. This study provides data for future assessments of the risks to these species associated with anticoagulant use.