U.S. Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service


Date of this Version

November 2004


Published by J. Agric. Food Chem. 2004, 52, 8074-8080.


Ring-labeled [14C]-3-chloro-4-methylaniline hydrochloride (250 μg per bird) was delivered to 21 red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and 21 dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) via oral gavage, and the distribution and excretion of radioactivity were determined at 15 and 30 min and 1, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h (n = 3 per time point). Direct measurement of radioactivity as well as measurement following combustion was accomplished using a liquid scintillation counter. Elimination from most tissues followed a two-compartment model, with very rapid elimination occurring between time 0 and 4 h and a much slower elimination phase occurring after that. The average half-life of elimination for the initial phase in most tissues examined was 0.16 h for juncos and 0.62 h for blackbirds. The average for the slower second phase of elimination was 3.4 h for juncos and 5.4 h for blackbirds. The radioactivity in blackbird kidney tissues did not change significantly for the duration of the test, pointing toward the kidney as a possible site of action for this important agricultural chemical.