Date of this Version
2009 Pro>Active Publications
This study was designed to investigate whether significant differences exist among the perceptions of leadership behaviors of female principals in North Carolina using Bolman and Deal's (1984) four frames (structural, human re- source, political, and symbolic) for analysis. Participants consisted of 1,245 fe- male principals from elementary, middle, and secondary public schools in North Carolina. The researchers collected 525 responses for a 53% response rate. Overall, female principals in North Carolina perceive that they use multiple frame perspectives in their leadership behaviors. Furthermore, results indicate that age, parental status, and years in current position made a difference in the number and type of frames female principals use.