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ABSTRACT The open access movement in its diverse forms constitutes the most interesting and promising model for the research output of an academic library or university. Even though the growth of OA presents some challenging hurdles to academic libraries, there are a number of notable benefits that are good enough to boost this movement. OA has come for good and is rapidly gaining impetus with an increasing number of academic institutions accepting and adopting open access policies and mandates for their research, publishing and dissemination. The purpose of this study is to discuss the situation of open access in academic libraries in developing countries with focus on academic libraries in Cameroon. This article explains the concept of Open Access (OA) by providing its meaning and definition. It throws light on the emergence and development of the Open Access movement, Open Access initiatives, and various OA declarations in the world. It describes different types of OA and the steady progress and increase of journals in the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ). The advantages of OA, its impact on scholarly community in Cameroon have been examined. Finally an overview of OA initiatives in Cameroon is explored.