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This study investigates the preservation and conservation of serials collection in selected academic libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria. Relevant literature on the concept of serials, importance of serials in academic library, preservation and conservation of serials, methods of preservation and conservation of serials, importance of preservation and conservation of serials, factors affecting the preservation and conservation of serials was reviewed. The descriptive research design of the survey type was adopted for this study. The study population consisted of two hundred and fifteen (215) library personnel’s in the three selected academic libraries. The population of the study consists of para-professional and professional librarians. Data were collected using questionnaire. Data collected, were analysed using simple percentages, mean and frequency distribution methods. The study provides answers to seven research questions posed. The result of the study revealed that the three libraries recruited more male staff than their female counterpart. It was revealed that Journal, Magazines and Newspapers among others were the types of serial materials that are available and most frequently consulted; preserved and conserved in the selected academic libraries. The study also revealed that prone to vandalism, lack of knowledge and skills, theft and mutilation were reasons why serial materials are not available for use in the selected academic libraries. The study revealed that conditions for preserving and conserving serials were disallowing bags and coats into the serial section, maintaining vigilance and regular housekeeping among others. Microfilming, Fumigation exercise and Disaster preparedness were the major methods adopted to preserve serials. The study also revealed that the selected academic libraries have preservation and conservation policy and the measures put in place to contain emergency situation were provision of fire alarms and fire extinguisher. It was revealed that lack of preservation and conservation librarians in the library, insufficient fund, lack of interest on the part of staff and inadequacy of equipment were the problems associated with the preservation and conservation of serials. Based on these findings, the following were recommended: Library management should organise a training programmes for their library personnel and send their staff for seminars and workshops on preservation and conservation of serials materials in order to be able to care for the serials collection in the library.