Libraries at University of Nebraska-Lincoln



Aditi Bandyopadhyay, Mary Kate Boyd-Byrnes, (2016) "Is the need for mediated reference service in academic libraries fading away in the digital environment?", Reference Services Review, Vol. 44 Issue: 4, pp.596-626, DOI:

Adolfo G. Prieto, (2017) "Humanistic perspectives in virtual reference", Library Review, Vol. 66 Issue: 8/9, pp.695-710, DOI:

Amol Dewaji Khobragade; Shalini Ramdas Lihitkar, (2016). Evaluation of virtual reference service provided by IIT libraries: A survey. DESIDOC Journal of Library and Information Technology, 36(1), 23-28, DOI: 10.14429/djlit.36.1.9150

Anne Woodsworth; W. David Penniman, (2013), Advances in Librarianship, in Anne Woodsworth , W. David Penniman (ed.) Mergers and Alliances: The Operational View and Cases (Advances in Librarianship, Volume 37) Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp.iii

Bob Duckett, (2000) "Reference and information services", Library Review, Vol. 49 Issue: 9, pp.454-461, DOI:

Bob Duckett, (2004) "From reference library to information service: services in danger", Library Review, Vol. 53 Issue: 6, pp.301-308, DOI:

Clare Thorpe. (2017). Engaging with Our Communities: Future Trends and Opportunities for Reference Services. Journal of the Australian Library and Information Association, 66(4), 406-415, DOI:

Emmanuel Baro, Ebikabowei; U. Efe, Bueaty; K. Oyeniran, Gboyega, (2014). Reference inquiries received through different channels: The challenges reference librarians face in university libraries in Nigeria. Reference Services Review; Bradford Vol. 42, Iss. 3, (2014): 514-529. DOI:10.1108/RSR-09-2013-0049

Eric Novotny, (2013). Assessing reference and user services in a digital age. Pensylvania: Taylor and Francis, DOI:

Eric Novotny, (2013) “Looking at the bigger picture: An integrated approach to evaluation of chat reference services”, In M. K. Kern, Assessing Reference and User Services in a Digital Age (pp. 99-112). Taylor and Francis, DOI:

Geraldine Delaney & Jessica Bates, (2018) “How Can the University Library Better Meet the Information Needs of Research Students? Experiences From Ulster University”, New Review of Academic Librarianship, 24:1, 63-89, DOI: 10.1080/13614533.2017.1384267

Harsh Bardhan Arya; Mishra, J K, (2012). Virtual Reference Services: Tools and Techniques. International Research : Journal of Library and Information Science; Aligarh Vol. 2, Iss. 1, pp. 28-46, DOI:

Joseph Vincze, (2017) "Virtual reference librarians (Chatbots)", Library Hi Tech News, Vol. 34 Issue: 4, pp.5-8, DOI:

Julie Michelle Hockey, (2016) "Transforming library enquiry services: anywhere, anytime, any device", Library Management, Vol. 37 Issue: 3, pp.125-135, DOI:

Lili Luo, (2008) "Chat reference evaluation: a framework of perspectives and measures", Reference Services Review, Vol. 36 Issue: 1, pp.71-85,

Lili Luo, Viscount B. Buer, (2015) "Reference service evaluation at an African academic library: the user perspective", Library Review, Vol. 64 Issue: 8/9, pp.552-566, DOI:

Nove E. Variant Anna. (2015). “The Usage of Web 2.0 as Promotion Media in Indonesia University Libraries”, Record and Library Journal, 1(1), 77-82, DOI:

María Pinto, Ramón A. Manso, (2012) "Virtual references services: defining the criteria and indicators to evaluate them", The Electronic Library, Vol. 30 Issue: 1, pp.51-69, DOI:

Rubia Khan; Arif Khan; Sidra Malik. (2017) “Virtual reference services through web search engines: Study of academic libraries in Pakistan”, Publications, 5(2),6, DOI: 10.3390/publications5020006

RUSA, (2008) Definition of reference. Available at

RUSA, (2017) Virtual reference companion. Available at

Raymond Pun, (2015) "WeChat in the library: promoting a new virtual reference service using a mobile app", Library Hi Tech News, Vol. 32 Issue: 6, pp.9-11, DOI:

Riki Greenberg; Judit Bar-Ilan, (2015). “Ask a librarian”: Comparing virtual reference services in an Israeli academic library. Library & Information Science Research, Volume 37, Issue 2, April 2015, Pages 139-146, DOI:

Sandy Hervieux, Nikki Tummon, (2018) "Let’s chat: the art of virtual reference instruction", Reference Services Review, Vol. 46 Issue: 4, pp.529-542, DOI:

Sharon Q. Yang; Heather A. Dalal, (2015). Delivering Virtual Reference Services on the Web: An Investigation into the Current Practice by Academic Libraries. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 41(1), 68-86. DOI:

Shu Z. Schiller, (2016). CHAT for chat: mediated learning in online chat virtual reference service. Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 65 Desember 2016, pp.651-665. DOI:

Steven W. Sowards, (2003) "Reference collections, reference services, and the change from text to technology", New Library World, Vol. 104 Issue: 4/5, pp.135-141, DOI:


The purpose of this paper want to evaluate virtual reference and information services at university libraries in Indonesia. Evaluation of reference services can be seen from two aspects: from the aspect of the library that provides virtual reference services and from aspects of users of virtual reference services. This paper focuses on aspects of libraries that provide virtual reference services. The number of sample in this study is all university libraries in Indonesia, which are 629 universities. We limited our samples only the university libraries considering that the university is the spearhead of research for the development of science that requires the support of knowledge resources from the library. Thus, the role of the library in providing scientific resources is needed both directly and online. Following that, a web survey was conducted regarding the virtual reference and information service, such as having a virtual reference service in the form of chat, social media, or e-mail. The web observations were conducted from August-October 2018. Evaluation of virtual reference and information services, especially technology and virtual reference questions service in Indonesia is still at the initial stage or baseline, where many libraries still use telephone and e-mail as the most preferred media. However, there have been several libraries that carry the modern concept of reference services and adopted increasingly varied technologies. Virtual reference services need to be carried on and continued to provide learning for millennia generation. Virtual reference services in Indonesia are only adopted by major universities, both public and private, where the university web is already well develop, the library website is completed, and have qualified human resources. Reference questions are also still limited to questions about libraries in general, not yet discuss about scientific questions that support research at universities.



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