Libraries at University of Nebraska-Lincoln


Document Type


Date of this Version

March 1993


Published in College & Research Libraries, 54:2 (March 1993), pp. 103-114. Copyright 1993 American Library Association. Used by permission.


Empirical studies of decision making find that the process is more disorderly than described in rational models. New models have appeared that suggest that managers need to accommodate the randomness found in complex organizations. This article examines two approaches for dealing with this disorder: the political-bargaining model and the garbage can model. The essay clarifies the differences between these two approaches and assesses their usefulness to managers for understanding the decision-making process.