Parasitology, Harold W. Manter Laboratory of



Angie T. C. Souza

Date of this Version


Document Type



MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity (ISSN 2470-8224) Occasional Papers, Number 25, December 12, 2022 doi: 10.32873/unl.dc.manter25


Copyright © 2022 Angie T. C. Souza, Sabrina B. L. Araujo, and Walter A. Boeger


Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are, besides a question of food safety and public health, an ecological and evolutionary issue. The recognition of this condition combined with the accumulation of evidence that pathogens are not specialists in their original hosts evidences the need for understanding how the dynamics of interaction between pathogens and hosts occurs. The Stockholm Paradigm (SP) provides the theoretical fundaments to understand the dynamics of diseases and design proactive measures to avoid the emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases. In this review, we revisit the models that evaluate several aspects of the proposed dynamics of the SP, including the complexity nature of the elements that have been associated with this new framework for the evolution of associations. We integrate the results from these studies into a putative dynamic of infectious diseases, discuss subordinate elements of this dynamic, and provide suggestions on how to integrate these findings into the DAMA (Document, Assess, Monitor, Act) protocol.