Biological Systems Engineering


Date of this Version



Published by University of Nebraska – Lincoln’s Livestock Environmental Issues Committee.


Time and motion (TM) studies are useful in determining labor requirement to perform a specific task in manufacturing processes. These studies have been used in the dairy industry to evaluate the labor requirements for various tasks associated with milking routine and milk parlor. Data may be used to evaluate the impact of changes or help in understanding labor requirements. The objective of this project was to determine the labor requirements for removing manure from concrete basins prior to land applications.