Mathematics, Department of


Date of this Version



ournal of Functional Analysis, Volume 281, Issue 1, 1 July 2021, 108993. doi:10.1016/j.jfa.2021.108993


Used by permission.


We introduce the notion of a Cartan envelope for a regular inclusion (C,Ɗ). When a Cartan envelope exists, it is the unique, minimal Cartan pair into which (C,Ɗ) regularly embeds. We prove a Cartan envelope exists if and only if (C,Ɗ) has the unique faithful pseudo-expectation property and also give a characterization of the Cartan envelope using the ideal intersection property.

For any covering inclusion, we construct a Hausdorff twisted groupoid using appropriate linear functionals and we give a description of the Cartan envelope for (C,Ɗ) in terms of a twist whose unit space is a set of states on C constructed using the unique pseudo-expectation. For a regular MASA inclusion, this twist differs from the Weyl twist; in this setting, we show that the Weyl twist is Hausdorff precisely when there exists a conditional expectation of C onto Ɗ.

We show that a regular inclusion with the unique pseudo-expectation property is a covering inclusion and give other consequences of the unique pseudo-expectation property.