Date of this Version
PACIFIC JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICS Vol. 319, No. 2, 2022 https://doi.org/10.2140/pjm.2022.319.343
We seek to connect ideas in the theory of bridge trisections with other wellstudied facets of classical knotted surface theory. First, we show how the normal Euler number can be computed from a tri-plane diagram, and we use this to give a trisection-theoretic proof of the Whitney–Massey theorem, which bounds the possible values of this number in terms of the Euler characteristic. Second, we describe in detail how to compute the fundamental group and related invariants from a tri-plane diagram, and we use this, together with an analysis of bridge trisections of ribbon surfaces, to produce an infinite family of knotted spheres that admit nonisotopic bridge trisections of minimal complexity.