Date of this Version
United States Patent ( 10 ) Patent No .: US 11,047,053 B1 Anderson et al . ( 45 ) Date of Patent : Jun . 29 , 2021
A system embodiment includes , but is not limited to , a solid structure configure to contact each of a material in a liquid phase and a material in a vapor phase , the solid structure including a plurality of microstructures protruding at angles relative to a horizontal plane ; and a layer of nanoparticles positioned on the plurality of microstructures , the layer of nanoparticles having a composition that is at least one of a same material as the plurality of microstructures and an oxide of the same material as the plurality of microstructures , the plurality of microstructures defining one or more valleys , each of the one or more valleys positioned between the layer of nanoparticles of adjacent microstructures of the plurality of microstructures , the one or more valleys con figured to govern at least one of a size and a shape of a bubble of the material in the vapor phase.