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The subfamily Phyllostominae is distributed from the southern United States (Arizona, California, and southern Nevada), southward into northern Argentina, Paraguay, and southern Brazil. South American phyllostomines are primarily restricted to the mainland, but also occur on a few major islands off the coast of South America, such as Margarita Island (Venezuela), Trinidad and Tobago, and the Netherlands Antilles, as well as the Greater and Lesser Antilles. The number of genera and species recognized in the subfamily depends on the taxonomic interpretations of the content of the genera Lophostoma, Micronycteris, Mimon, Phyllostomus, and Tonatia. In near agreement with the interpretation by Simmons and Voss (1998), plus a few subsequent additions, we here recognize 16 genera and 42 species.