Natural Resources, School of


Date of this Version



Published in Pest Management Science 74 (2018), pp 348–355.

DOI 10.1002/ps.4711


Copyright © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. Published by Wiley. Used by permission.


Background: Provisia™ rice (PV), a non-genetically engineered (GE) quizalofop-resistant rice, will provide growers with an additional option for weed management to use in conjunction with Clearfield® rice (CL) production. Modeling compared the impact of stacking resistance traits versus single traits in rice on introgression of the resistance trait to weedy rice (also called red rice). Common weed management practices were applied to 2-, 3- and 4-year crop rotations, and resistant and multiple-resistant weedy rice seeds, seedlings and mature plants were tracked for 15 years.

Results: Two-year crop rotations resulted in resistant weedy rice after 2 years with abundant populations (exceeding 0.4 weedy rice plants m–2) occurring after 7 years. When stacked trait rice was rotated with soybeans in a 3-year rotation and with soybeans and CL in a 4-year rotation, multiple-resistance occurred after 2–5 years with abundant populations present in 4–9 years. When CL rice, PV rice, and soybeans were used in 3- and 4-year rotations, the median time of first appearance of multiple-resistance was 7–11 years and reached abundant levels in 10–15 years.

Conclusion: Maintaining separate CL and PV rice systems, in rotation with other crops and herbicides, minimized the evolution of multiple herbicide-resistant weedy rice through gene flow compared to stacking herbicide resistance traits.