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Khound, R., Santra, D., Su, Q., Effects of Vagotomy and Fenugreek on Hyperlipidemia and Insulin Resistance
Hyperlipidemia is the impairment of lipid metabolism marked by abnormally high levels of lipid in circulation. This has been implicated in a number of metabolic diseases including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Insulin resistance is the impairment of insulin action, which leads to several diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. New clinical and therapeutic approaches are warranted for the prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance. In our study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the effect of complete disruption of the sub-diaphragmatic vagus nerve (vagotomy) on hyperlipidemia and insulin sensitivity. We observed that vagotomy significantly reduced the fasting and postprandial TG levels and VLDL synthesis. Vagotomy also resulted in elevated circulatory GLP-1 levels which possibly led to reductions in de novo fatty acid synthesis and VLDL production. This surgical procedure also found to ameliorate HFD-induced hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis. Significant improvement in insulin sensitivity was also observed in vagotomized mice. We also studied the effect of fenugreek seeds on hyperlipidemia using CREBH-null mouse model. We observed that consumption of fenugreek and treatment with trigonelline, a bioactive compound derived from fenugreek, ameliorated induced hyperlipidemia by upregulating transcription of Insig proteins, preventing VLDL synthesis and enhancing fatty acid oxidation. These findings rationalize the use of vagotomy as an effective clinical procedure to treat obesity and diabetes. The study also substantiates the prospect of using fenugreek as a potent nutraceutical in the treatment of metabolic diseases.
Advisors: Qiaozhu Su and Dipak K. Santra