Comparisons of Two Polymorphic Species of Ostertagia and Phylogenetic Relationships within the Ostertagiinae (Nematoda: Trichostrongyloidea) Inferred from Ribosomal DNA Repeat and Mitochondrial DNA Sequences
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The first internal transcribed spacer DNA (ITS-1) (rDNA) and the mitochondrial (mt) DNA-derived cytochrome oxidase I gene (COX-1) were enzymatically amplified, cloned and sequenced from 6 nominal species of Ostertagiinae as well as Haemonchus contortus and Haemonchus placei. The portion of the COX-1 gene analyzed was 393 base pairs (bp) in length and contained 33 within species polymorphic base changes at 28 synonymous sites. The ITS-1 rDNA consensus sequences ranged from 392 bp (Ostertagia ostertagi/Ostertagia lyrata, Teladorsagia circumcincta) to 404 bp (H. contortus, H. placei). These data were used both in a distance analysis to assess the concept of polymorphic species within the genus Ostertagia and in parsimony analysis to assess phylogenetic relationships within a limited group of Ostertagiinae. Pairwise similarity scores of both ITS-1 and COX-1 data showed the highest number of conserved sites between the proposed dimorphic species of Ostertagia. The level of similarity was lower in the COX-1 data due to the high number of synonymous base changes. Analysis by maximum parsimony of the same data did not refute O. ostertagiO. lyrata and Ostertagia mossi/Ostertagia dikmansi as dimorphic species and supported monophyly of these ostertagiines relative to representatives of the haemonchine outgroup. In the single most parsi- monious tree from ITS-1 rDNA data, a subclade of Ostertagia spp. included forms possessing parallel synlophes and long esophageal valves that typically occur in cervid hosts.