Parasitology, Harold W. Manter Laboratory of


Date of this Version



Aquaculture 206:1–2 (March 2002), pp. 57–135.

doi: 10.1016/S0044-8486(01)00865-1


Copyright © 2002 Elsevier Science

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License


Disease agents and pests associated with freshwater crayfish fall into six main categories—viruses, bacteria, rickettsia-like organisms (RLOs), fungi, protists, and metazoans. Data and information on specific disease agents and pests from each of these categories are presented in this synopsis. Each agent or group of agents is considered under the following headings—condition, causative agent(s), life cycle/life history, epizootiology, pathology, pathogen viability. Information for the synopsis was obtained from the published literature and from personal contact with internationally recognized experts in freshwater crayfish aquaculture, biology, and disease. Data of relevance for import risk analysis are summarized.

Import risk analysis is the process by which the risks associated with importation of animals and plants, and products derived from animals and plants, are assessed and managed. Hazard identification is essential and is the first component of an import risk analysis. In 1996, the Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service (AQIS) commenced a review of policy relating to the importation of nonviable freshwater crayfish products, along with a suite of other aquatic animal products. AQIS commissioned a synopsis of freshwater crayfish pests and pathogens for use as a resource document for hazard identification in the formal IRA process.