Research Papers in Physics and Astronomy


Date of this Version



Published in Physica B: Condensed Matter, Volume 593, 15 September 2020, 412280


© 2020 published by Elsevier. This manuscript is made available under the Elsevier user license


Thermal motion of the surface atoms will lead to a decrease in photoemission intensity, while surface segregation may result in an increase of some phostoemission intensities. For In4Se3(001), both effects are seen. The Debye–Waller factor plot, based on the temperature dependent X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) measurements on In4Se3(001), suggests an upper bound of 203 ± 6 K for the effective Debye temperature, based on the surface component of the In 3d5/2 core-level. Indium is found to segregate to selvedge (subsurface region) of the crystal.