Research Papers in Physics and Astronomy


Date of this Version


Document Type



Appl. Phys. Rev. 6, 011306 (2019);

doi: 10.1063/1.5045131


Copyright © Authors 2019. Used by permission.


Tailoring structural, chemical, and electronic (dis-)order in heterogeneous media is one of the transformative opportunities to enable new functionalities and sciences in energy and quantum materials. This endeavor requires elemental, chemical, and magnetic sensitivities at the nano/atomic scale in two- and three-dimensional space. Soft X-ray radiation and hard X-ray radiation provided by synchrotron facilities have emerged as standard characterization probes owing to their inherent element-specificity and high intensity. One of the most promising methods in view of sensitivity and spatial resolution is coherent diffraction imaging, namely, X-ray ptychography, which is envisioned to take on the dominance of electron imaging techniques offering with atomic resolution in the age of diffraction limited light sources. In this review, we discuss the current research examples of far-field diffraction-based X-ray ptychography on two-dimensional and three-dimensional semiconductors, ferroelectrics, and ferromagnets and their blooming future as a mainstream tool for materials sciences.