Political Science, Department of


Date of this Version



Published in: C. T. Havard, Intense Group Behavior and Brand Negativity, doi:10.1007/978-3-031-23456-9_2


Copyright © 2023 Cody T. Havard and Elizabeth Theiss-Morse, under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Used by permission.


The current study investigated how fans and supporters of sport teams and political parties in the United States viewed relevant out-groups and out-group members. Specifically, perceptions of rival sport teams and political parties were compared to determine how fans and supporters differed in their views and likely behaviors toward out-groups. Findings showed that sport fans reported more positive attitudes toward their favorite teams and more negative attitudes of the rival team than in politics. However, political supporters reported more negative perceptions and likely behaviors toward the out-group than fans of sport. Additional analysis revealed that the common in-group influenced perceptions. Finally, political affiliation also influenced the way participants view and their likely behaviors. Research and practical implications are discussed, and additional research avenues are introduced.