Public Health Resources


Date of this Version



Pediatrics Vol. 135 No. 5 May 1, 2015, pp. 816 -825 (doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-3825).


U.S. government work.


BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopmental disability is the most common complication for survivors of surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD).

METHODS: We analyzed individual participant data from studies of children evaluated with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, second edition, after cardiac surgery between 1996 and 2009. The primary outcome was Psychomotor Development Index (PDI), and the secondary outcome was Mental Development Index (MDI).

RESULTS: Among 1770 subjects from 22 institutions, assessed at age 14.5 +/- 3.7 months, PDIs and MDIs (77.6 +/- 18.8 and 88.2 +/- 16.7, respectively) were lower than normative means (each PCONCLUSIONS: Early neurodevelopmental outcomes for survivors of cardiac surgery in infancy have improved modestly over time, but only after adjustment for innate patient risk factors. As more high-risk CHD infants undergo cardiac surgery and survive, a growing population will require significant societal resources.