Animal Science Department


Date of this Version



Presented at Range Beef Cow Symposium XXI, December 1-3, 2009, Casper, Wyoming. Sponsored by Cooperative Extension Services and the Animal Science Departments of the University of Wyoming, Colorado State University, South Dakota State University, and the University of Nebraska¬Lincoln.


Wow! What a challenging topic. Why is it challenging? Because there is not one right answer; nor is the question easy to define or analyze. However, there are some underlying principles that I believe apply in most situations. I will spend most of my time on those principles with the hope that you as a cattle manager can use these principles to make good decisions.