Department of Special Education and Communication Disorders


Document Type


Date of this Version



Neuroimage: Reports 2 (2022) 100081


© 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license


The effective connectivity of neuronal networks during orofacial pneumotactile stimulation with different velocities is still unknown. The present study aims to characterize the effectivity connectivity elicited by three different saltatory velocities (5, 25, and 65 cm/s) over the lower face using dynamic causal modeling on functional magnetic resonance imaging data of twenty neurotypical adults. Our results revealed the contralateral SI and SII as the most likely sources of the driving inputs within the sensorimotor network for the pneumotactile stimuli, suggesting parallel processing of the orofacial pneumotactile stimuli. The 25 cm/s pneumotactile stimuli modulated forward interhemispheric connection from the contralateral SII to the ipsilateral SII, suggesting a serial interhemispheric connection between the bilateral SII. Moreover, the velocity pneumotactile stimuli influenced the contralateral M1 through contralateral SI and SII, indicating that passive pneumotactile stimulation may positively impact motor function rehabilitation. Furthermore, the medium velocity 25 cm/s pneumotactile stimuli modulated both forward and backward connections between the right cerebellar lobule VI and the contralateral left SI and M1. This result suggests that the right cerebellar lobule VI plays a role in the sensorimotor network through feedforward and feedback neuronal pathways. This study is the first to map similarities and differences of effective connectivity across the three-velocity orofacial pneumotactile stimulation. Our findings shed light on the potential therapeutic use of passive orofacial pneumotactile stimuli using the Galileo system.