Lepidoptera Survey


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Taxonomic Report of the International Lepidoptera Survey (November 6, 2020) 8(7): 1-40

Also available at https://lepsurvey.carolinanature.com/ttr/ttr-8-7.pdf

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ZooBank registration: http://zoobank.org/9A8DCBC8-A9D5-4083-B640-BA5101827478


Copyright 2020, International Lepidoptera Survey. Open access material

License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-SA-NC 4.0 International)


Further genomic sequencing of butterflies by our research group expanding the coverage of species and specimens from different localities, coupled with genome-scale phylogenetic analysis and complemented by phenotypic considerations, suggests a number of changes to the names of butterflies, mostly those recorded from the United States and Canada. Here, we present evidence to support these changes. The changes are intended to make butterfly classification more internally consistent at the genus, subgenus and species levels. That is, considering all available evidence, we attempt to assign similar taxonomic ranks to the clades of comparable genetic differentiation, which on average is correlated with the age of phylogenetic groups estimated from trees. For species, we use criteria devised by genomic analysis of the genetic differentiation across suture zones and comparison of sympatric populations of closely related species. As a result, we resurrect 4 genera and 1 subgenus from subgeneric status or synonymy, change the rank of 8 currently used genera to subgenus, synonymize 7 genus-group names, summarize evidence to support 19 taxa as species instead of subspecies and 1 taxon as subspecies instead of species, along with a number of additional changes. One new genus and one new subspecies are described. Namely, the following taxa are treated as genera Tharsalea Scudder, 1876, Helleia Verity, 1943, Apangea Zhdanko, 1995, and Boldenaria Zhdanko, 1995. Tetracharis Grote, 1898 is a valid subgenus (not a synonym of Anthocharis Boisduval, Rambur, [Duménil] & Graslin, [1833]) that consists of Anthocharis cethura C. Felder & R. Felder, 1865 (Müller, 1764), Anthocharis midea (Hübner, [1809]), and Anthocharis limonea (A. Butler, 1871). The following are subgenera: Speyeria Scudder, 1872 of Argynnis Fabricius, 1807; Aglais Dalman, 1816 and Polygonia Hübner, [1819] of Nymphalis Kluk, 1780; Palaeonympha Butler, 1871 of Megisto Hübner, [1819]; Hyponephele Muschamp, 1915 of Cercyonis Scudder, 1875; Pyronia Hübner, [1819] and Aphantopus Wallengren, 1853 of Maniola Schrank, 1801 and Pseudonymphidia Callaghan, 1985 of Pachythone. Lafron Grishin, gen. n. (type species Papilio orus Stoll, [1780], parent subfamily Lycaeninae [Leach], [1815]) is described. Dipsas japonica Murray, 1875 is fixed as the type species of Neozephyrus Sibatani & Ito, 1942. The following taxa are junior subjective synonyms: Falcapica Klots, 1930 of Tetracharis Grote, 1898; Habrodais Scudder, 1876, Favonius Sibatani & Ito, 1942, Neozephyrus Sibatani & Ito, 1942, Quercusia Verity, 1943, Chrysozephyrus Shirôzu & Yamamoto, 1956, and Sibataniozephyrus Inomata, 1986 of Hypaurotis Scudder, 1876; Plesioarida Trujano & García, 2018 of Roeberella Strand, 1932; Papilio temenes Godart, 1819 (lectotype designated herein) of Heraclides aristodemus (Esper, 1794), Speyeria hydaspe conquista dos Passos & Grey, 1945 of Argynnis hesperis tetonia (dos Passos & Grey, 1945), and Erycides imbreus Plötz, 1879 of Phocides polybius polybius (Fabricius, 1793). The following are revised genus-species combinations: Pachythone lencates (Hewitson, 1875) Pachythone flocculus (Brévignon & Gallard, 1993), Pachythone floccus (Brévignon, 2013), Pachythone heberti (P. Jauffret & J. Jauffret, 2007), Pachythone marajoara (P. Jauffret & J. Jauffret, 2007) and Cissia cleophes (Godman & Salvin, 1889). The following species are transferred between subgenera: Anthocharis lanceolata Lucas, 1852 belongs to Anthocharis Boisduval, Rambur, [Duménil] & Graslin, [1833] instead of Paramidea Kuznetsov, 1929 and Danaus eresimus (Cramer, 1777) belongs to Danaus Kluk, 1780, and not to Anosia Hübner, 1816. The following taxa are distinct species rather than subspecies (of species shown in parenthesis): Heraclides ponceana (Schaus, 1911) (not Heraclides aristodemus (Esper, 1794)), Colias elis Strecker, 1885 (not Colias meadii W. H. Edwards, 1871), Argynnis irene Boisduval, 1869 and Argynnis nausicaa W. H. Edwards, 1874 (not Argynnis hesperis W. H. Edwards, 1864), Coenonympha california Westwood, [1851] (not Coenonympha tullia (Müller, 1764)), Dione incarnata N. Riley, 1926 (not Dione vanillae (Linnaeus, 1758)), Chlosyne coronado (M. Smith & Brock, 1988) (not Chlosyne fulvia (W. H. Edwards, 1879)), Chlosyne chinatiensis (Tinkham, 1944) (not Chlosyne theona (Ménétriés, 1855)), Phocides lilea (Reakirt, [1867]) (not Phocides polybius (Fabricius, 1793)), Cecropterus nevada (Scudder, 1872) and Cecropterus dobra (Evans, 1952) (not Cecropterus mexicana (Herrich-Schäffer, 1869)), Telegonus anausis Godman & Salvin, 1896, (not Telegonus anaphus (Cramer, 1777)), Epargyreus huachuca Dixon, 1955 (not Epargyreus clarus (Cramer, 1775)), Nisoniades bromias (Godman & Salvin, 1894) (not Nisoniades rubescens (Möschler, 1877)), Pholisora crestar J. Scott & Davenport, 2017 (not Pholisora catullus (Fabricius, 1793)), Carterocephalus mandan (W. H. Edwards, 1863) and Carterocephalus skada (W. H. Edwards, 1870) (not Carterocephalus palaemon (Pallas, 1771)), Amblyscirtes arizonae H. Freeman, 1993 (not Amblyscirtes elissa Godman, 1900), and Megathymus violae D. Stallings & Turner, 1956 (not Megathymus ursus Poling, 1902). Resulting from these changes, the following are revised species-subspecies combinations: Heraclides ponceana bjorndalae (Clench, 1979), Heraclides ponceana majasi L. Miller, 1987, Argynnis irene dodgei Gunder, 1931, Argynnis irene cottlei J. A. Comstock, 1925, Argynnis irene hanseni (J. Emmel, T. Emmel & Mattoon, 1998), Argynnis nausicaa elko (Austin, 1984), Argynnis nausicaa greyi (Moeck, 1950), Argynnis nausicaa viola (dos Passos & Grey, 1945), Argynnis nausicaa tetonia (dos Passos & Grey, 1945), Argynnis nausicaa chitone W. H. Edwards, 1879, Argynnis nausicaa schellbachi (Garth, 1949), Argynnis nausicaa electa W. H. Edwards, 1878, Argynnis nausicaa dorothea (Moeck, 1947), and Argynnis nausicaa capitanensis (R. Holland, 1988), Argynnis zerene atossa W. H. Edwards, 1890, Dione incarnata nigrior (Michener, 1942), Chlosyne coronado pariaensis (M. Smith & Brock, 1988), Cecropterus nevada aemilea (Skinner, 1893), Cecropterus nevada blanca (J. Scott, 1981), Telegonus anausis annetta (Evans, 1952), Telegonus anausis anoma (Evans, 1952), Telegonus anausis aniza (Evans, 1952), Epargyreus huachuca profugus Austin, 1998, Carterocephalus mandan mesapano (Scudder, 1868) and Carterocephalus skada magnus Mattoon & Tilden, 1998. American Coenonympha subspecies placed under C. tullia other than Coenonympha tullia kodiak W. H. Edwards, 1869, Coenonympha tullia mixturata Alpheraky, 1897 and Coenonympha tullia yukonensis W. Holland, 1900 belong to C. california. Heraclides ponceana latefasciatus Grishin, ssp. n. is described from Cuba. Argynnis coronis carolae dos Passos & Grey, 1942 is considered a subspecies-level taxon. Unless stated otherwise, all subgenera, species, subspecies and synonyms of mentioned genera and species are transferred together with their parent taxa, and others remain as previously classified.