Lepidoptera Survey


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Taxonomic Report of the International Lepidoptera Survey (April 10, 2007) 6(8): 1-12

Also available at https://lepsurvey.carolinanature.com/ttr/ttr-6-8.pdf


Copyright 2007, International Lepidoptera Survey. Open access material

License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-SA-NC 4.0 International)


Biological parameters of Papilio demoleus Linnaeus, the Citrus Butterfly, in Tando Muhammad Khan, lower Sindh, Pakistan are presented. This major agricultural pest was reared on Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. (Curry Leaf) and ten different varieties of Citrus sp. (Citrus) plants. The length of the adult mating period ranged 5 to 8 hours. Following mating, females laid 27.7 ± 3.3 eggs. Eggs hatched in 1.5 to 7 days. Mean durations of larval instars were 1.8 ± 0.1 (minimum) and 2.9 ± 0.1 (maximum) days respectively. Pupal duration was 5.5 to 20 days. Biotic factors including predators [praying mantis, ants, Common Garden Lizard (Calotes versicolor)] and parasitoids [Trichogramma chilonis, Pteromalus puparum] played a significant role in mortality in all stages of the butterfly. Survival in most life stages had a negative correlation with temperature. Thirteen generations of P. demoleus per year were recorded. The feeding effect of Curry Leaf and ten different Citrus varieties on butterfly survival was examined. The Growth Index value was highest on Citrus aurantiifolia (Kaghzi Lime) and lowest on Murraya koenigii (Curry Leaf). The effect of artificial diets on adults was studied; only a 15% honey solution increased fecundity rate and survival of the adults.