A Taxonomic Examination of Harkenclenus titus (Lycaenidae: Theclinae) in the Eastern United States: Recognition and Resolution of Taxonomic Problems by the Delineation of Old Names, Naming of a Long Recongnized (but Heretofore Undescribed) Subspecies, and Description of a Wide Ranging New Subspecies
Date of this Version
Taxonomic Report of the International Lepidoptera Survey (April 30, 2004) 4(6): 1-17
Also available at https://lepsurvey.carolinanature.com/ttr/ttr-4-6.pdf
Harkenclenus is retained per dos Passos 1970 as a genus distinct from Satyrium. The names titus and mopsus have long been considered to apply to two subspecies. These are demonstrated to be synonymous as both names are based on southeastern United States populations. The holotype of titus (Natural History Museum London) is examined and its type locality established as Screven County, Georgia, United States. A neotype is established for the synonymic name mopsus, type locality, Screven County, Georgia, United States. This leaves the long recognized northern subspecies without a name; it is described as new subspecies Harkenclenus titus winteri, type locality Sherborn, Massachusetts, United States. Harkenclenus titus campus, type locality Shelby County, Iowa, United States is described as a new subspecies. Subspecies campus has long been recognized as distinct from northern titus winteri, but wrongly assumed to be subspecies mopsus (= titus). Harkenclenus titus watsoni is assessed and considered valid. Four subspecies of titus are thus known from eastern North America: H. titus titus, H. titus winteri, H. titus campus, H. titus watsoni. Each subspecies is phenotypically defined and their ranges delineated. Harkenclenus. t. titus ranges from north central Florida, United States up the coastal plain possibly to Maryland, United States. Harkenclenus t. watsoni ranges west of a line from south central Texas, United States north to at least western Oklahoma, United States; its western boundary in New Mexico, United States is uncertain. Harkenclenus t. winteri ranges from the Atlantic across the northern United States and southern Canada to subspecies immaculosus; not in the southern Appalachians. The range of H. t. campus extends from the Black Belt prairies of Alabama, United States to eastern Texas, United States and north and northeast to the ranges of H. t. immaculosus and H. t. winteri.