Lepidoptera Survey


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The Taxonomic Report (2024) 11(7): 1-43


Copyright 2024, the International Lepidoptera Survey. Open access material

License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-SA-NC 4.0 International)


This study presents new findings based on a large-scale analysis of butterfly genomic sequences. Focusing on species identification through comparative genomics, we define subspecies as populations differentiated to a lesser extent than distinct species ("species in the making"). Additionally, we propose further adjustments to the current butterfly classification. As a result, 3 subgenera, 12 species, and 4 subspecies are described as new. New subgenera are (type species in parenthesis): Hyalaus Grishin, subgen. n. (Papilio epidaus E. Doubleday, 1846) of Eurytides Hübner, [1821] (Papilionidae Latreille, [1802]) and Astria Grishin, subgen. n. (Lycaena astraea Freyer, 1851) of Glaucopsyche Scudder, 1872 and Afroidium Grishin, subgen. n. (Lycaena metophis Wallengren, 1860) of Brephidium Scudder, 1876 (Lycaenidae [Leach], [1815]). New species are (type localities in parenthesis): Ithomiola (Ithomiola) tesseroides Grishin, sp. n. (Panama: Chiriquí), Ithomiola (Ithomiola) coladoris Grishin, sp. n. (Panama: Cerro Jefe), Ithomiola (Ithomiola) perutanos Grishin, sp. n. (Peru: Cuzco), Lasaia pallida Grishin, sp. n. (Venezuela: Maracay), Synargis regina Grishin, sp. n. (Peru: Chanchamayo), Synargis reginella Grishin, sp. n. (Brazil: Pará), Synargis flavicauda Grishin, sp. n. (Peru: Rio Pachitea, Monte Alegre), Synargis tenebritorna Grishin, sp. n. (Brazil: Bahia), and Synargis latidifa Grishin, sp. n. (French Guiana) in Riodinidae Grote, 1895 (1827) and Heliopetes (Heliopetes) acuta Grishin, sp. n. (Mexico: Oaxaca), Metrocles nun Grishin, sp. n. (Brazil: Goiás), and Hedone miracla Grishin, sp. n. (Peru: Lima, Chancay River valley) in Hesperiidae Latreille, 1809. New subspecies are: Microtia elva bogotana Grishin, ssp. n. (Colombia: Bogota), and Boloria astarte alaskia Grishin, ssp. n. (USA: Alaska, Seward Peninsula) in Nymphalidae Rafinesque, 1815; Lasaia sessilis oaxacensis Grishin, ssp. n. (Mexico: Oaxaca) in Riodinidae; and Cupido (Everes) comyntas orientalis Grishin, ssp. n. (USA: North Carolina, Mecklenburg Co.) in Lycaenidae [Leach], [1815]. A number of taxonomic changes are proposed. The following taxa are species (not subspecies): Eurema ella (Röber, 1909) and Eurema flavescens (Chavannes, 1850) (not Eurema elathea (Cramer, 1777) and Eurema millerorum Llorente & Luis, 1987 (not Eurema agave (Cramer, 1775)) (Pieridae Swainson, 1820); Ithomiola tessera J. Hall, 2005 (not Ithomiola theages Godman & Salvin, 1878), Lasaia callaina Clench, 1972 (not Lasaia agesilas (Latreille, [1809])), and Synargis attilius (Stichel, 1925) (not Synargis regulus (Fabricius, 1793)) (Riodinidae); and Gerosis cnidus (Plötz, 1884) (not Gerosis phisara (Moore, 1884)), Vettius prona Evans, 1955 (not Vettius phyllus (Cramer, 1777)), Vettius pica (Herrich-Schäffer, 1869) (not Vettius lafrenaye (Latreille, [1824])), and Phlebodes yalta (Evans, 1955) (not Phlebodes fuldai (E. Bell, 1930)) (Hesperiidae). The following taxa are junior subjective synonyms: Lycaena sissona W. G. Wright, 1905 of Cupido comyntas (Godart, [1824]) (Lycaenidae) and Punta Evans, 1955 of Paracarystus Godman, 1900 (Hesperiidae). Coladenia hamiltoni Nicéville, 1889 and Caprona? kuki Tytler, 1915 are junior subjective synonyms of Gerosis cnidus, not Gerosis phisara. Albulina Tutt, 1909 is a genus distinct from Agriades Hübner, [1819]. Eugrumia Della Bruna, Gallo, Lucarelli & Sbordoni, 2000 is a valid genus, and Sinerebia Nakatani, 2017 is its junior subjective synonym. The following are subgenera, not genera or synonyms: Oraidium Bethune-Baker, 1914 of Brephidium Scudder, 1876, Vacciniina Tutt, 1909 of Agriades Hübner, [1819], and Arianna Bálint, 2022 of Plebejus Kluk, 1780 (Lycaenidae) and Uniphylus Lemes, Siewert, O. Mielke, Casagrande & A. Warren, 2023 of Bolla Mabille, 1903 (Hesperiidae). We propose new genus-subgenus combinations Erythia fayneli (Gallard, 2006) (not in Euselasia Hübner, [1819]) and Gallio coda Evans, 1955 (not in Tigasis Godman, 1900) and new species-subspecies combination Eurema flavescens obsoleta (Jörgensen, 1932) (not Eurema elathea (Cramer, 1777)). We present the genomic phylogeny of all known species of Euriphellus Austin, 2008 (Hesperiidae). Lectotypes are designated for Polyommatus comyntas Godart, [1824] (type locality in USA: California, as deduced by genomic comparison) (Lycaenidae) and Achlyodes cnidus Plötz, 1884 (type locality unknown, possibly in eastern India or Bangladesh) (Hesperiidae).