Department of Teaching, Learning and Teacher Education


Date of this Version



Published in J.D. Wright (ed.), International Encyclopedia for Social and Behavioral Sciences 2nd Edition. Vol 9 (Oxford: Pergamon Press, 2015), pp. 327-332. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.92082-8


Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Used by permission.


Foreign language teaching and learning have changed from teacher-centered to learner/learning-centered environments. Relying on language theories, research findings, and experiences, educators developed teaching strategies and learning environments that engaged learners in interactive communicative language tasks. A shift in foreign language pedagogy from a specific foreign language method to the measurement of language performance/competency has resulted in a change in the role of the teacher from one of authority/expert to that of facilitator/guide and agent of change. Current developments point to public pedagogy, social media, and action research as additional ways to foster intercultural competence and language learning.