Department of Teaching, Learning and Teacher Education


Date of this Version

Spring 1997


Hamann, E. T., (1997). Nine Complementary Principles to Retain Adults in an ESOL/Literacy Program. TESOL in Action, 11(3): 4-7.


TESOL in Action was a journal published intermittently by Georgia TESOL in the 1990s.


The following list of principles is my attempt to share general recommendations to teachers of ESOL and/or limited literacy adults based on my specific practice running a bilingual family literacy program and confirmed by my more recent experience as a volunteer bilingual literacy teacher at the Asociación Latinoamericana (in Atlanta). Though I believe in bilingual classroom environments, I think the principles identified here are also pertinent to monolingual ESL environments.