U.S. Department of Defense


Date of this Version



Journal of Computational Physics 278, 2014


U.S. Government work


When applying the method of manufactured solutions (MMS) on computational fluid dynamic software, determining the exact solutions and source terms for finite volume codes where the stored value is an integrated average over the control volume is non-trivial and not frequently discussed. MMS with discontinuities further complicates the problem of determining these values. In an effort to adapt the standard MMS procedure to solutions that contain discontinuities we show that Newton–Cotes and Gauss quadrature numerical integration methods exhibit high error, first order limitations. We propose a new method for determining the exact solutions and source terms on a uniform structured grid containing shock discontinuities by performing linearly and quadratically exact transformations on split cells. Transformations are performed on triangular and quadrilateral elements of a systematically divided discontinuous cell. Using a quadratic transformation in conjunction with a nine point Gauss quadrature method, a minimum of 4th order accuracy is achieved for fully general solutions and shock shapes. A linear approximation of curved shocks is also experimentally shown to be 2nd order accurate. The numerical integration method is then applied to a CFD code using simple discontinuous manufactured solutions which return consistent 1st order convergence values. The result is an important step towards being able to use MMS to verify solutions with discontinuities. This work also highlights the use of higher order numerical integration techniques for continuous and discontinuous solutions that are required for MMS on higher order finite volume codes.