U.S. Department of Agriculture: Agricultural Research Service, Lincoln, Nebraska


Date of this Version



Published in APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, Jan. 2003, p. 577–582.


Little information regarding the effectiveness of UV radiation on the inactivation of caliciviruses and enteric adenoviruses is available. Analysis of human calicivirus resistance to disinfectants is hampered by the lack of animal or cell culture methods that can determine the viruses’ infectivity. The inactivation kinetics of enteric adenovirus type 40 (AD40), coliphage MS-2, and feline calicivirus (FCV), closely related to the human caliciviruses based on nucleic acid organization and capsid architecture, were determined after exposure to low-pressure UV radiation in buffered demand-free (BDF) water at room temperature. In addition, UV disinfection experiments were also carried out in treated groundwater with FCV and AD40. AD40 was more resistant than either FCV or coliphage MS-2 in both BDF water and groundwater. The doses of UV required to achieve 99% inactivation of AD40, coliphage MS-2, and FCV in BDF water were 109, 55, and 16 mJ/cm2, respectively. The doses of UV required to achieve 99% inactivation of AD40, coliphage MS-2, and FCV in groundwater were slightly lower than those in BDF water. FCV was inactivated by 99% by 13 mJ/cm2 in treated groundwater. A dose of 103 mJ/cm2 was required for 99% inactivation of AD40 in treated groundwater. The results of this study indicate that if FCV is an adequate surrogate for human caliciviruses, then their inactivation by UV radiation is similar to those of other single-stranded RNA enteric viruses, such as poliovirus. In addition, AD40 appears to be more resistant to UV disinfection than previously reported.