U.S. Department of Agriculture: Agricultural Research Service, Lincoln, Nebraska


Date of this Version



Eur J Plant Pathol (2011) 130:5–12; DOI 10.1007/s10658-010-9737-3


Three haplotypes of the recently discovered bacterium species “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” are described and related to geographic ranges. The first two are associated with Zebra Chip/Psyllid Yellows of potatoes and other solanaceous plants, vectored by the tomato/potato psyllid Bactericera cockerelli in North and Central America and New Zealand. The third is associated with diseased carrots in Finland and vectored by the carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis. The haplotypes are described by SNPs on the 16s rRNA, 16s/23s ISR and 50s rplJ and rplL ribosomal protein genes. These SNPs are inherited as a package across the three genes. Haplotype “a” has been found primarily from Honduras and Guatemala through western Mexico to Arizona and California, and in New Zealand. Haplotype “b” is currently known from eastern Mexico and northwards through Texas to south central Washington. These haplotypes show some range overlap in Texas, Kansas and Nebraska. The haplotypes are not yet known to elicit biological differences in the plant or insect hosts. These apparently stable haplotypes suggest separate bacterial populations of long standing.