U.S. Department of Agriculture: Agricultural Research Service, Lincoln, Nebraska


Date of this Version



U.S. Government Works


Veterinary Parasitology 139 (2006) 347–359


As a direct consequence of rising drug resistance among common nematodes of grazing animals, efforts toward state-of-the- art vaccine development have clearly intensified in recent years, fuelled primarily by the advent of newer technologies in gene discovery, by advancements in antigen identification, characterisation and production. In this regard, it is appropriate to review progress that has been made in generating helminth vaccines and in particular, vaccines against common nematodes of production animals for consumption. In like manner, it is prudent to evaluate barriers that have hindered progress in the past and continue to present obstacles that must be solved when utilizing and depending on host immunity to attenuate parasitic infections.