U.S. Department of Agriculture: Agricultural Research Service, Lincoln, Nebraska


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Bannantine JP, Li L, Mwangi M, Cote R, Raygoza Garay JA, Kapur V. 2014. Complete genome sequence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, isolated from human breast milk. Genome Announc. 2(1):e01252-13. doi:10.1128/genomeA.01252-13.


2014 Bannantine et al.


Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes Johne’s disease (JD) in cattle, sheep, goats, and other ruminant animals. JD presents as a chronic granulomatous intestinal infection with a worldwide distribution and imposes a significant economic toll on livestock industries (1). M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis has a complex cell wall structure containing mycolic acids and several lipids similar to those of other members of this genus, yet it is the most slowly growing member. This bacterium often requires 8 to 16 weeks before colonies are visible in culture, which is a major hurdle in diagnostics and therefore in the implementation of optimal JD control measures. Although a well-established domestic and wild animal pathogen, it has also been implicated as a causative agent in human Crohn’s disease (2), and even though this link is controversial (3), M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates have been obtained from humans. For instance, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis 4, the isolate whose sequence we report here, was originally isolated from the breast milk of a Crohn’s disease patient in 2000 (4).

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