U.S. Department of Agriculture: Agricultural Research Service, Lincoln, Nebraska



Pia U. Olafson, USDA Agricultural Research ServiceFollow
Serap Aksoy, Yale University
Geoffrey M. Attardo, University of California, Davis
Greta Buckmeier, USDA Agricultural Research Service
Xiaoting Chen, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
Craig J. Coates, Texas A&M University
Megan Davis, USDA Agricultural Research Service
Justin Dykema, Wayne State University
Scott J. Emrich, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Markus Friedrich, Wayne State University
Christopher J. Holmes, University of Cincinnati
Panagiotis Ioannidis, Université de Genève Faculté de Médecine
Evan N. Jansen, University of Cincinnati
Emily C. Jennings, University of Cincinnati
Daniel Lawson, European Bioinformatics Institute
Ellen O. Martinson, University of Georgia
Gareth L. Maslen, European Bioinformatics Institute
Richard P. Meisel, University of Houston
Terence D. Murphy, National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)
Dana Nayduch, USDA Agricultural Research Service
David R. Nelson, University of Tennessee Health Science Center
Kennan J. Oyen, University of Cincinnati
Tyler J. Raszick, Texas A&M University
José M.C. Ribeiro, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Hugh M. Robertson, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign
Andrew J. Rosendale, Mount Saint Joseph University
Timothy B. Sackton, Harvard Faculty of Arts and Sciences
Perot Saelao, USDA Agricultural Research Service
Sonja L. Swiger, Texas A&M AgriLife Research
Sing Hoi Sze, Texas A&M University
Aaron M. Tarone, Texas A&M University
David B. Taylor, USDA Agricultural Research Service - Lincoln, Nebraska
Wesley C. Warren, University of Missouri
Robert M. Waterhouse, Université de Lausanne (UNIL)
Matthew T. Weirauch, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
John H. Werren, University of Rochester
Richard K. Wilson, Nationwide Children’s Hospital
Evgeny M. Zdobnov, Université de Genève Faculté de Médecine
Joshua B. Benoit, University of CincinnatiFollow

Date of this Version



Olafson et al. BMC Biology (2021) 19:41 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12915-021-00975-9


This is a U.S. Government work and not under copyright protection in the US;


Background: The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, is a major blood-feeding pest of livestock that has near worldwide distribution, causing an annual cost of over $2 billion for control and product loss in the USA alone. Control of these flies has been limited to increased sanitary management practices and insecticide application for suppressing larval stages. Few genetic and molecular resources are available to help in developing novel methods for controlling stable flies. Results: This study examines stable fly biology by utilizing a combination of high-quality genome sequencing and RNA-Seq analyses targeting multiple developmental stages and tissues. In conjunction, 1600 genes were manually curated to characterize genetic features related to stable fly reproduction, vector host interactions, host-microbe dynamics, and putative targets for control. Most notable was characterization of genes associated with reproduction and identification of expanded gene families with functional associations to vision, chemosensation, immunity, and metabolic detoxification pathways. Conclusions: The combined sequencing, assembly, and curation of the male stable fly genome followed by RNA-Seq and downstream analyses provide insights necessary to understand the biology of this important pest. These resources and new data will provide the groundwork for expanding the tools available to control stable fly infestations. The close relationship of Stomoxys to other blood-feeding (horn flies and Glossina) and non-blood-feeding flies (house flies, medflies, Drosophila) will facilitate understanding of the evolutionary processes associated with development of blood feeding among the Cyclorrhapha.

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